Office of Management and Budget





The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). The director of the OMB is a member of the Executive Office of the President. The main function of the OMB is to assist the president in preparing the budget. The OMB also measures the quality of agency programs, policies, and procedures and to see if they comply with the president's policies.

The current OMB Director is Shaun Donovan, who was nominated by the president following Sylvia Mathews Burwell's nomination to become the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services. Donovan was confirmed by the Senate in a 75â€"22 vote.

History


Office of Management and Budget

The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, which was signed into law by president Warren G. Harding. The Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939, and reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included Roy Ash (head), Paul O'Neill (assistant director), Fred Malek (deputy director) and Frank Zarb (associate director) and two dozen others.

In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices.

Purpose


Office of Management and Budget

The OMB's predominant purpose is to assist the president in overseeing the preparation of the federal budget and to supervise its administration in executive branch agencies. In helping to formulate the president's spending plans, the OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. The OMB ensures that agency reports, rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies.

In addition, the OMB oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management, information, and regulatory policies. In each of these areas, the OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, and to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public.

The OMB's critical missions are:

  1. Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President (EOP) and a device by which a president implements his policies, priorities, and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA.
  2. The OMB manages other agencies' financials, paperwork, and IT.

Structure



Overview

The Office contains a significant number of politically appointed staff; OMB staff provide important continuity regardless of which party occupies the White House. Six positions within OMB â€" the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, and the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, and the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions.

The largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the four Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U.S. Navy warships. These staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget. They perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, and oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are often called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member. They also provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, and the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.

Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division (BRD), and the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, and the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress.

The Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the Administration about the proposal. They are also responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum to the president once a bill is presented by both bodies of Congress for the president's signature. The Enrolled Bill Memorandum details the particulars of the bill, opinions on the bill from relevant federal departments, and an overall opinion about whether the bill should be signed into law or vetoed. They also issue Statements of Administration Policy that let Congress know the White House's official position on proposed legislation.

Organization

  • Director, OMB
    • Deputy Director, OMB
      • Legal Affairs Division
      • Legislative Affairs Division
      • Strategic Planning and Communications Division
      • Management and Operations Division
      • Economic Policy Division
      • Legislative Reference Division
      • Budget Review Division
      • Resource Management Offices
        • Natural Resources Programs
        • Education, Income Maintenance and Labor Programs
        • Health Programs
        • General Government Programs
        • National Security Programs
    • Deputy Director for Management and Chief Performance Officer
      • Office of Federal Financial Management
      • Office of Federal Procurement Policy
      • Office of E-Government and Information Technology
      • Office of Performance and Personnel Management
      • Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs

Key staff



  • Director of the Office of Management and Budget: Shaun Donovan
    • Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget: Brian Deese
    • Deputy Director for Management (Chief Performance Officer): Beth Cobert
      • General Counsel: Geovette Washington
      • Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management: Vacant
      • Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy: Daniel Gordon
      • Administrator of the Office of E-Government & Information Technology (Chief Information Officer): Tony Scott
      • Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs: Howard Shelanski

List of directors



Source:

See also



  • United States Census Bureau
    • List of U.S. states and territories by population
    • List of metropolitan areas of the United States
    • List of United States cities by population
    • List of United States counties and county-equivalents
    • Primary statistical area â€" List of the 574 PSAs
    • Combined Statistical Area â€" List of the 169 CSAs
    • Core Based Statistical Area â€" List of the 929 CBSAs
    • Metropolitan Statistical Area â€" List of the 388 MSAs
    • Micropolitan Statistical Area â€" List of the 541 μSAs
    • United States urban area â€" List of United States urban areas
  • Title 2 of the Code of Federal Regulations
  • Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations
  • United States federal budget
  • Office of Federal Financial Management
  • Office of Federal Procurement Policy
  • Office of E-Government & Information Technology
  • Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs

References



External links



  • United States Office of Management and Budget website
  • Office of Management and Budget in the Federal Register
  • Budget of the United States government and supplements, 1923â€"present
  • Death and Taxes: 2009 A visual guide and infographic of the 2009 United States federal discretionary budget request as prepared by the OMB
  • "The Decision Makers: Office of Management and Budget" GovExec.com, August 22, 2005
  • OMB regulatory officials (by administration)
  • History OMB regulatory review program


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