United States Minor Outlying Islands

The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 3166-1 code, consist of eight United States insular areas in the Pacific Ocean (Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Island) and one in the Caribbean Sea (Navassa Island).


Among them, Palmyra Atoll is the only incorporated territory. As of 2008, none of the islands have any permanent residents. The only human population consists of temporarily stationed scientific and military personnel. The 2000 census counted 315 people on Johnston Atoll and one person on Wake Island.

There has been no modern indigenous population, except at the 1940 census. In 1936 a colonization scheme began to settle Americans on Baker, Howland, and Jarvis, but all three islands were evacuated in 1942 as a result of World War II.

The islands are grouped together as a statistical convenience. They are not administered collectively, nor do they share a single cultural or political history beyond being uninhabited islands under the sovereignty of the United States.

They are collectively represented by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code UM. The individual islands have ISO 3166-2 numerical codes, see ISO 3166-2:UM. The Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) ".um" has historically been assigned to the islands; however, the .um ccTLD was retired in January 2007.

ISO introduced the term "United States Minor Outlying Islands" in 1986. From 1974 until 1986, five of the islands (Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef) were grouped under the term United States Miscellaneous Pacific Islands, with ISO 3166 code PU. The code of Midway Atoll was MI, the code of Johnston Atoll was JT, and the code of Wake Island was WK. The Pacific islands are surrounded by large Exclusive Economic Zones.

See also Organized incorporated territories, Unincorporated territories and List of territorial disputes in North America.


The following is a list of island airports with ICAO (IATA) codes:

  • PJON (JON): Johnston Atoll Airport, Johnston Atoll
  • PMDY (MDY): Henderson Field (Naval Air Facility), Sand Island
  • PWAK (AWK): Wake Island Airfield, Wake Island
  • PLPA: Palmyra (Cooper) Airport, Palmyra Atoll, Cooper Island
  • PBAR: Baker Island Airport, Baker Island
  • PLUR: Jarvis Airport, Jarvis Island

Other airports include:

  • Kamakaiwi Field: Howland Island (1937 to about 1945)
  • Kingman Reef: The lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938.


Three of the islands are listed with ports in the World Port Index, with World Port Number:

  • 56325 JOHNSTON ATOLL: Johnston Atoll
  • 56328 MIDWAY ISLAND: Midway Atoll
  • 56330 WAKE ISLAND: Wake Island
  • not listed WEST LAGOON: Palmyra Atoll

Baker Island, Howland Island and Jarvis Island have a small boat landing place on each. Kingman Reef and Navassa Island have offshore anchorage only.


See also

  • ISO 3166-2:UM
  • List of airports by ICAO code: P
  • List of airports in United States minor islands
  • Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument
  • United States Miscellaneous Caribbean Islands
  • United States Miscellaneous Pacific Islands


External links

  • WorldStatesmen- U.S.
  • Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
  • CIA World Factbook: United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges

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